Operation

The operation is used to perform an action within OTRS. This action is requested by the external system and can include special parameters in order to correctly execute the action. After the action is performed, OTRS sends a defined confirmation to the external system.

Operation Back End

Next we will show how to develop a new operation, each operation has to implement these subroutines:

  • new
  • Run

We should implement each one of this methods in order to be able to execute the action handled by the provider (Kernel/GenericInterface/Provider.pm).

Operation Code Example

In this section a sample operation module is shown and each subroutine is explained.

# --
# Kernel/GenericInterface/Operation/Test/Test.pm - GenericInterface test operation backend
# Copyright (C) 2001-2018 OTRS AG, https://otrs.com/
# --
# This software comes with ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY. For details, see
# the enclosed file COPYING for license information (GPL). If you
# did not receive this file, see https://www.gnu.org/licenses/gpl-3.0.txt.
# --

package Kernel::GenericInterface::Operation::Test::Test;

use strict;
use warnings;

use Kernel::System::VariableCheck qw(IsHashRefWithData);

our $ObjectManagerDisabled = 1;

This is common header that can be found in common OTRS modules. The class/package name is declared via the package keyword.

We also include VariableCheck module to perform certain validation over some variables. Operations can not be instantiated by the object manager.

sub new {
    my ( $Type, %Param ) = @_;

    my $Self = {};
    bless( $Self, $Type );

    # check needed objects
    for my $Needed (qw(DebuggerObject)) {
        if ( !$Param{$Needed} ) {
            return {
                Success      => 0,
                ErrorMessage => "Got no $Needed!"
            };
        }

        $Self->{$Needed} = $Param{$Needed};
    }

    return $Self;
}

The constructor new creates a new instance of the class. According to the coding guidelines only objects of other classes not handled by the object manager that are needed in this module have to be created in new.

sub Run {
    my ( $Self, %Param ) = @_;

    # check data - only accept undef or hash ref
    if ( defined $Param{Data} && ref $Param{Data} ne 'HASH' ) {

        return $Self->{DebuggerObject}->Error(
            Summary => 'Got Data but it is not a hash ref in Operation Test backend)!'
        );
    }

    if ( defined $Param{Data} && $Param{Data}->{TestError} ) {

        return {
            Success      => 0,
            ErrorMessage => "Error message for error code: $Param{Data}->{TestError}",
            Data         => {
                ErrorData => $Param{Data}->{ErrorData},
            },
        };
    }

    # copy data
    my $ReturnData;

    if ( ref $Param{Data} eq 'HASH' ) {
        $ReturnData = \%{ $Param{Data} };
    }
    else {
        $ReturnData = undef;
    }

    # return result
    return {
        Success => 1,
        Data    => $ReturnData,
    };
}

The Run function is the main part of each operation. It receives all internal mapped data from remote system needed by the provider to execute the action, it performs the action and returns the result to the provider to be external mapped and deliver back to the remote system.

This particular example returns the same data as came from the remote system, unless TestError parameter is passed. In this case it returns an error.

Operation Configuration Example

There is the need to register this operation module to be accessible in the OTRS GUI. This can be done using the XML configuration below.

<ConfigItem Name="GenericInterface::Operation::Module###Test::Test" Required="0" Valid="1">
    <Description Translatable="1">GenericInterface module registration for the operation layer.</Description>
    <Group>GenericInterface</Group>
    <SubGroup>GenericInterface::Operation::ModuleRegistration</SubGroup>
    <Setting>
        <Hash>
            <Item Key="Name">Test</Item>
            <Item Key="Controller">Test</Item>
            <Item Key="ConfigDialog">AdminGenericInterfaceOperationDefault</Item>
        </Hash>
    </Setting>
</ConfigItem>

Unit Test Example

Unit test for generic interface operations does not differs from other unit tests but it is needed to consider testing locally, but also simulating a remote connection. It is a good practice to test both separately since results could be slightly different.

See also

To learn more about unit tests, please take a look to the Unit Tests chapter.

The following is just the starting point for a unit test:

# --
# Copyright (C) 2001-2018 OTRS AG, https://otrs.com/
# --
# This software comes with ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY. For details, see
# the enclosed file COPYING for license information (GPL). If you
# did not receive this file, see https://www.gnu.org/licenses/gpl-3.0.txt.
# --

## no critic (Modules::RequireExplicitPackage)
use strict;
use warnings;
use utf8;

use vars (qw($Self));

use Kernel::GenericInterface::Debugger;
use Kernel::GenericInterface::Operation::Test::Test;

use Kernel::System::VariableCheck qw(:all);

# Skip SSL certificate verification (RestoreDatabase must not be used in this test).
$Kernel::OM->ObjectParamAdd(
    'Kernel::System::UnitTest::Helper' => {
        SkipSSLVerify => 1,
    },
);
my $Helper = $Kernel::OM->Get('Kernel::System::UnitTest::Helper');

# get a random number
my $RandomID = $Helper->GetRandomNumber();

# create a new user for current test
my $UserLogin = $Helper->TestUserCreate(
    Groups => ['users'],
);
my $Password = $UserLogin;

my $UserID = $Kernel::OM->Get('Kernel::System::User')->UserLookup(
    UserLogin => $UserLogin,
);

# set web-service name
my $WebserviceName = '-Test-' . $RandomID;

# create web-service object
my $WebserviceObject = $Kernel::OM->Get('Kernel::System::GenericInterface::Webservice');
$Self->Is(
    'Kernel::System::GenericInterface::Webservice',
    ref $WebserviceObject,
    "Create web service object",
);

my $WebserviceID = $WebserviceObject->WebserviceAdd(
    Name   => $WebserviceName,
    Config => {
        Debugger => {
            DebugThreshold => 'debug',
        },
        Provider => {
            Transport => {
                Type => '',
            },
        },
    },
    ValidID => 1,
    UserID  => 1,
);
$Self->True(
    $WebserviceID,
    "Added Web Service",
);

# get remote host with some precautions for certain unit test systems
my $Host = $Helper->GetTestHTTPHostname();

my $ConfigObject = $Kernel::OM->Get('Kernel::Config');

# prepare web-service config
my $RemoteSystem =
    $ConfigObject->Get('HttpType')
    . '://'
    . $Host
    . '/'
    . $ConfigObject->Get('ScriptAlias')
    . '/nph-genericinterface.pl/WebserviceID/'
    . $WebserviceID;

my $WebserviceConfig = {
    Description =>
        'Test for Ticket Connector using SOAP transport backend.',
    Debugger => {
        DebugThreshold => 'debug',
        TestMode       => 1,
    },
    Provider => {
        Transport => {
            Type   => 'HTTP::SOAP',
            Config => {
                MaxLength => 10000000,
                NameSpace => 'http://otrs.org/SoapTestInterface/',
                Endpoint  => $RemoteSystem,
            },
        },
        Operation => {
            Test => {
                Type => 'Test::Test',
            },
        },
    },
    Requester => {
        Transport => {
            Type   => 'HTTP::SOAP',
            Config => {
                NameSpace => 'http://otrs.org/SoapTestInterface/',
                Encoding  => 'UTF-8',
                Endpoint  => $RemoteSystem,
            },
        },
        Invoker => {
            Test => {
                Type => 'Test::TestSimple'
                ,    # requester needs to be Test::TestSimple in order to simulate a request to a remote system
            },
        },
    },
};

# update web-service with real config
# the update is needed because we are using
# the WebserviceID for the Endpoint in config
my $WebserviceUpdate = $WebserviceObject->WebserviceUpdate(
    ID      => $WebserviceID,
    Name    => $WebserviceName,
    Config  => $WebserviceConfig,
    ValidID => 1,
    UserID  => $UserID,
);
$Self->True(
    $WebserviceUpdate,
    "Updated Web Service $WebserviceID - $WebserviceName",
);

# debugger object
my $DebuggerObject = Kernel::GenericInterface::Debugger->new(
    DebuggerConfig => {
        DebugThreshold => 'debug',
        TestMode       => 1,
    },
    WebserviceID      => $WebserviceID,
    CommunicationType => 'Provider',
);
$Self->Is(
    ref $DebuggerObject,
    'Kernel::GenericInterface::Debugger',
    'DebuggerObject instantiate correctly',
);

# define test cases
my @Tests = (
    {
        Name           => 'Test case name',
        SuccessRequest => 1,                  # 1 or 0
        RequestData    => {

            # ... add test data
        },
        ExpectedReturnLocalData => {
            Data => {

                # ... add expected local results
            },
            Success => 1,                     # 1 or 0
        },
        ExpectedReturnRemoteData => {
            Data => {

                # ... add expected remote results
            },
            Success => 1,                     # 1 or 0
        },
        Operation => 'Test',
    },

    # ... add more test cases
);

TEST:
for my $Test (@Tests) {

    # create local object
    my $LocalObject = "Kernel::GenericInterface::Operation::Test::$Test->{Operation}"->new(
        DebuggerObject => $DebuggerObject,
        WebserviceID   => $WebserviceID,
    );

    $Self->Is(
        "Kernel::GenericInterface::Operation::Test::$Test->{Operation}",
        ref $LocalObject,
        "$Test->{Name} - Create local object",
    );

    my %Auth = (
        UserLogin => $UserLogin,
        Password  => $Password,
    );
    if ( IsHashRefWithData( $Test->{Auth} ) ) {
        %Auth = %{ $Test->{Auth} };
    }

    # start requester with our web-service
    my $LocalResult = $LocalObject->Run(
        WebserviceID => $WebserviceID,
        Invoker      => $Test->{Operation},
        Data         => {
            %Auth,
            %{ $Test->{RequestData} },
        },
    );

    # check result
    $Self->Is(
        'HASH',
        ref $LocalResult,
        "$Test->{Name} - Local result structure is valid",
    );

    # create requester object
    my $RequesterObject = $Kernel::OM->Get('Kernel::GenericInterface::Requester');
    $Self->Is(
        'Kernel::GenericInterface::Requester',
        ref $RequesterObject,
        "$Test->{Name} - Create requester object",
    );

    # start requester with our web-service
    my $RequesterResult = $RequesterObject->Run(
        WebserviceID => $WebserviceID,
        Invoker      => $Test->{Operation},
        Data         => {
            %Auth,
            %{ $Test->{RequestData} },
        },
    );

    # check result
    $Self->Is(
        'HASH',
        ref $RequesterResult,
        "$Test->{Name} - Requester result structure is valid",
    );

    $Self->Is(
        $RequesterResult->{Success},
        $Test->{SuccessRequest},
        "$Test->{Name} - Requester successful result",
    );

    # ... add tests for the results
}

# delete web service
my $WebserviceDelete = $WebserviceObject->WebserviceDelete(
    ID     => $WebserviceID,
    UserID => $UserID,
);
$Self->True(
    $WebserviceDelete,
    "Deleted Web Service $WebserviceID",
);

# also delete any other added data during the this test, since RestoreDatabase must not be used.

1;

WSDL Extension Example

WSDL files contain the definitions of the web services and its operations for SOAP messages, in case we will extend development/webservices/GenericTickeConnectorSOAP.wsdl in some places:

Port Type:

<wsdl:portType name="GenericTicketConnector_PortType">
    <!-- ... -->
    <wsdl:operation name="Test">
        <wsdl:input message="tns:TestRequest"/>
        <wsdl:output message="tns:TestResponse"/>
    </wsdl:operation>
<!-- ... -->

Binding:

<wsdl:binding name="GenericTicketConnector_Binding" type="tns:GenericTicketConnector_PortType">
    <soap:binding style="document" transport="http://schemas.xmlsoap.org/soap/http"/>
    <!-- ... -->
    <wsdl:operation name="Test">
        <soap:operation soapAction="http://www.otrs.org/TicketConnector/Test"/>
        <wsdl:input>
            <soap:body use="literal"/>
        </wsdl:input>
        <wsdl:output>
            <soap:body use="literal"/>
        </wsdl:output>
    </wsdl:operation>
    <!-- ... -->
</wsdl:binding>

Type:

<wsdl:types>
    <xsd:schema targetNamespace="http://www.otrs.org/TicketConnector/" xmlns:xsd="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema">
    <!-- ... -->
        <xsd:element name="Test">
            <xsd:complexType>
                <xsd:sequence>
                        <xsd:element minOccurs="0" name="Param1" type="xsd:string"/>
                        <xsd:element minOccurs="0" name="Param2" type="xsd:positiveInteger"/>
                </xsd:sequence>
            </xsd:complexType>
        </xsd:element>
        <xsd:element name="TestResponse">
            <xsd:complexType>
                <xsd:sequence>
                    <xsd:element maxOccurs="unbounded" minOccurs="1" name="Attribute1" type="xsd:string"/>
                </xsd:sequence>
            </xsd:complexType>
        </xsd:element>
    <!-- ... -->
    </xsd:schema>
</wsdl:types>

Message:

<!-- ... -->
<wsdl:message name="TestRequest">
    <wsdl:part element="tns:Test" name="parameters"/>
</wsdl:message>
<wsdl:message name="TestResponse">
    <wsdl:part element="tns:TestResponse" name="parameters"/>
</wsdl:message>
<!-- ... -->

WADL Extension Example

WADL files contain the definitions of the web services and its operations for REST interface, add a new resource to development/webservices/GenericTickeConnectorREST.wadl.

<resources base="http://localhost/otrs/nph-genericinterface.pl/Webservice/GenericTicketConnectorREST">
  <!-- ... -->
  <resource path="Test" id="Test">
    <doc xml:lang="en" title="Test"/>
      <param name="Param1" type="xs:string" required="false" default="" style="query" xmlns:xs="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema"/>
      <param name="Param2" type="xs:string" required="false" default="" style="query" xmlns:xs="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema"/>
      <method name="GET" id="GET_Test">
        <doc xml:lang="en" title="GET_Test"/>
        <request/>
        <response status="200">
          <representation mediaType="application/json; charset=UTF-8"/>
        </response>
      </method>
    </resource>
  </resource>
  <!-- ... -->
</resources>

Web Service SOAP Extension Example

Web services can be imported into OTRS by a YAML with a predefined structure in this case we will extend development/webservices/GenericTickeConnectorSOAP.yml for a SOAP web service.

Provider:
  Operation:
    # ...
    Test:
      Description: This is only a test
      MappingInbound: {}
      MappingOutbound: {}
      Type: Test::Test

Web Service REST Extension Example

Web services can be imported into OTRS by a YAML with a predefined structure in this case we will extend development/webservices/GenericTickeConnectorREST.yml for a REST web service.

Provider:
  Operation:
    # ...
    Test:
      Description: This is only a test
      MappingInbound: {}
      MappingOutbound: {}
      Type: Test::Test
  # ...
  Transport:
    Config:
      # ...
      RouteOperationMapping:
        # ..
        Test:
          RequestMethod:
          - GET
          Route: /Test